Before the Holocaust, Poland had the largest population of Jews in the world, and before the establishment of Israel, they became part of the Polish diaspora that emigrated elsewhere. Now they also make up the Jewish diaspora. The number of Jews still living in Poland varies by source, but can be estimated between 8,000 and 100,000.
In the United States, there are around 10 million Americans of Polish descent, with 1 million in Chicago alone (the largest Polish population outside of Warsaw, Poland). Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Detroit, Buffalo, N.Y., Brooklyn, N.Y., Wallington, N.J. ("Poland on the Passaic River"), Milwaukee, Baltimore and New Britain, Conn., also have large contingents of Poles. Arizona, California and Florida are becoming the latest areas of Polish concentration as Baby Boomers are retiring to warmer temperatures.